The rapid growth of Kigali and the associated human activities have put significant pressure on the wetlands. Wetlands, including Nyandungu, have been degraded and this led to biodiversity loss. Encroachment has also resulted in downstream flooding as well as increased pollution due sewage outflows. In 2016, the Government of Rwanda through the Rwanda Environment Management Authority (REMA) developed the Nyandungu restoration project to respond to these challenges and demonstrate the potential of wetlands to abate pollution and reduce the risk of flooding in urban areas. Since then, the Ryf 4.5 billion project, funded by the Rwanda Green Fund (FONERWA) with support from the UK Government, IS APR BBC an.. the Italian Government through the Ministry for Ecological Transition and the UN Environment Programme, has restored critical y 2023 habitats, including a native fig forest and the wetland itself, and rehabilitated streams and ponds to alleviate floods and reed-beds to reduce pollution.

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